Episode 28 The FitPro Guide To Bones

Episode 28 The FitPro Guide To Bones

Today’s FitPro Sessions Podcast is the FitPro Guide To Bones.

FitPros often see the SKELETON as something that they need to know just for the anatomy exam;

this means that as soon as your exam is over


All the information disappears from your brain

The biggest problem with this is that forgetting the info learned about the BONES effects your ability to be an outstanding coach

It’s a cascade effect:

Without knowing the bones of the body, it is tricky to learn the origin and insertions of muscles.

If you don’t know the origin and insertion of muscles then its hard to understand muscle actions,

If you don’t know muscle actions then you don’t know which muscles worked on exercises.

If you don’t know about muscles worked on exercises then your planning for sessions is GUESSING

Today, Neale and I explore the FitPros guide to Bones, everything you need to know about bones and the skeletal system… with a bit of extra chat about Honeycomb icecream 🙂

Click the PLAY button below to listen to the entire episode

Episode 028 The FitPro Guide To Bones

Grab the FitPro Sessions Podcast show notes:


0:30 Introduction to Episode 028 of the FitPro Sessions Podcast
1:30 Why knowing the bones is important for you as a FitPro beyond the exam
4:00 The cascade effect of not knowing the bones
6:30 Physiological adaptation, posture and technique
8:30 The Skeletal System overview and functions
14:00 The bones you need to know for your fitness exam
15:50 The 5 types of bones in the body
23:30 Understanding the different layers of bone tissue
26:30 Bone Cells, remodeling of bone tissue
29:40 Bone density and preventing osteoporosis
35:30 Why anatomy and knowing the bones is important
36:30 Your invitation to our Revision Mastery Bootcamps
38:40 Reach out to us and join us in our Inner circle Facebook Group

The FitPros Guide To Bones:

By learning the Skeletal system and valuing this knowledge it will advance you as a FitPro and as a coach.

For example, knowing the bones and skeletal system allows you to KNOW exactly WHAT the body should look like when observing your client.

making you a human x-ray machine

Learning the bones and joints allows you to understand movement, injuries, muscle actions and how this relates across to energy systems.

So, although Bones may seem like a tedious link to coaching and instructing clients, this knowledge can impact you greatly.

Skeletal System Facts:

Bones provide the structure and shape to our bodies.

The adult human skeleton is made up of 206 bones.

Bones are made of connective tissue reinforced with calcium and specialised bone cells.

Most bones also contain bone marrow, where blood cells are made.

Bones work with muscles and joints to hold our body together and allow for movement. This is called the musculoskeletal system.

The skeleton also protects delicate internal organs such as the brain, heart and lungs.

Bones contain most of our body’s calcium supply.

The body is constantly building up and breaking down bone tissue as required.

Bones you need to know for the Level 2 and 3 Anatomy Exam

The human skeleton is made up of 206 bones, including bones of the:

  • Skull – including the jaw bone
  • Spine – cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum and coccyx
  • Chest – ribs and breastbone (sternum)
  • Arms – shoulder blade (scapula), collar bone (clavicle), humerus, radius and ulna
  • Hands – wrist bones (carpals), metacarpals and phalanges
  • Pelvis – hip bones – ilium, ischium and pubis (3 bones each side)
  • Legs – thigh bone (femur), kneecap (patella), shin bone (tibia) and fibula
  • Feet – tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges.

Bone types

There are five different types of bone in the human body:

  • Long bone – has a long, thin shape. Examples include the bones of the arms and legs. With the help of muscles, long bones work as levers to permit movement.
  • Short bone – has a square/ cubed shape. Examples include the bones that make up the hand (carpals) and the foot (tarsals).
  • Flat bone – has a flattened, broad surface. Examples include ribs, scapula, sternum and skull bones. The flat shape allows for lots of muscle attachment points.
  • Irregular bone – has a shape that does not conform to the above three types. Examples include the bones of the spine (vertebrae).
  • Sesamoid bone – is a small bone embedded within a tendon, for example, the kneecap (patella). Other examples are found in the hands and feet.

Bone tissue layers

There are many different layers of bone tissue. Here are the key 4 layers you need to know about:

  • Periosteum – the dense, tough outer shell that contains blood vessels and nerves
  • Compact or dense tissue – the hard, smooth layer that protects the tissue within
  • Spongy or cancellous tissue – the porous, honeycombed material found inside most bones, which allows the bone to be strong yet lightweight
  • Bone marrow – the jelly-like substance found inside the cavities of some bones (including the pelvis) that produces blood cells.

Read more about the structure of the Long Bone here:

The Bone cells

Our body is constantly remodeling its skeleton by building up and breaking down bone tissue as required. As a result, each bone is rebuilt from scratch about every decade.

The bone cells involved in this process include:

  • Osteoblasts – the cells that build bone tissue
    B = Blasts; B = Build
  • Osteoclasts – the cells that break down old bone tissue.
    C = Clasts; C = Collapse
  • Osteocytes – the cells that maintain bone tissue by controlling the mineral and calcium content

Bone density

Many factors work together to ensure the strength and health of bones. Bone density relies on:

  • A steady supply of dietary calcium
  • Adequate vitamin D from sunshine and food
  • A healthy diet with plenty of vitamins and minerals
  • Various hormones including parathyroid hormone, growth hormone, calcitonin, estrogen and testosterone
  • Regular weight-bearing exercise.

Find out more about osteoporosis and bone density here:


Guide To Bones Mock Questions:

Q1. What is the name given to the bone cells that build new bone?
A. Osteoclasts
B. Osteoblasts
C. Osteocytes
D. Osteoporosis

Q2. Which type of bone are the tarsal bones?
A. Long Bone
B. Sesamoid Bone
C. Short Bone
D. Irregular Bone

Q3. What is the name given to the hard outer shell of the bone?
A. Perimysium
B. Epiosteum
C. Periosteum
D. Cancellous bone

Download More Mock Questions like this:


Fitness Exam Mock Questions free download


Q1: B
Q2: C
Q3: C

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If you want to get your revision structured, learn everything you need to know and feel confident on exam day, then click the link below:


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Dedicated to More

Hayley “guide to bones” Bergman

Parallel Coaching

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